Baidu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Baidu, Inc.
Baidu.svg
Type of site
Public
Traded as NASDAQBIDU
Founded January 1, 2000; 17 years ago (2000-01-01)
Headquarters Beijing, China
Area served Worldwide
Key people Robin Li (Chairman, CEO) [1]
Industry Internet
Revenue
Increase CNY 70.549 billion
(Dec 31, 2016) [2]
Operating income
Decrease CNY 10.049 billion
(Dec 31, 2016) [2]
Total assets
Increase CNY 181.997 billion
(Dec 31, 2016) [3]
Total equity
Increase CNY 92.250 billion
(Dec 31, 2016) [3]
Employees
(Mar 31, 2016) [4]
43,500
Website www.baidu.com
Alexa rank Steady 4 (Global, September 2017)[5]
Baidu
Baidu Campus.jpg
Baidu headquarters, Haidian District, Beijing
Chinese 百度

Baidu, Inc. (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bǎidù, anglicized /ˈbd/ "BY-doo"), incorporated on 18 January 2000, is a Chinese web services company headquartered at the Baidu Campus in Beijing's Haidian District.[6] It is one of the largest internet companies, and one of the premier AI leaders in the world.[7][8] The holding company of the group was incorporated in the Cayman Islands.[2]

Baidu offers many services, including a Chinese search engine for websites, videos, multimedia files, news, translations and other useful functions, as well as global mapping service Baidu Maps. Baidu offers 57 search and community services including Baidu Baike (an online, collaboratively built encyclopedia) and a searchable, keyword-based discussion forum.[9] Baidu was established in 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu. Both of the co-founders are Chinese nationals who studied in Peking University and worked overseas before returning to China. In December 2016, Baidu ranked 4th overall in the Alexa Internet rankings.[10][11]

Baidu's Global Business Unit, formed under the name of DU Group or DU Apps Studio, is an app developer with a wide variety of popular award-winning apps and services, accumulating over 2 billion users worldwide. It aims to provide innovative products, as well as new and exciting business models and ways to interact with technology, through AI and mobile devices. It has also established offices around the world including Brazil, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Egypt, Japan and the United States, with the goal of becoming the core player in shaping how technology works, in every continent. Its award-winning products include DU Battery Saver, DU Speed Booster, MoboMarket, DU Browser, Facemoji Keyboard, DU Flashlight, DU Security, DU Cleaner, DU Privacy Vault, DU Antivirus, Photo Wonder, DU Caller, DU Recorder, ES File Explorer, Simeji, and more.[12][13][14][15][16] Baidu also provides an official international and Chinese version of its widely popular online digital distribution services Baidu App Store and Shouji Baidu respectively, both hosting vast amount of downloadable content and applications from all over the world.[17][18]

Baidu has the 2nd largest search engine in the world, and held a 76.05% market share in China's search engines market, the largest in the world, as of April 2017.[19][20][21] In December 2007, Baidu became the first Chinese company to be included in the NASDAQ-100 index.[22]

As of 2017, Baidu Search released Spider 3.0 which is capable of indexing over trillions of web pages.[23][24] Baidu offers multimedia content including MP3 music, and movies, and is the first in China to offer Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and personal digital assistant (PDA)-based mobile search.

Baidu Brain, the company's AI-based artificial neural network has achieved a remarkable 97% accuracy rate in voice recognition and 99.7% rate in facial recognition, affirming the success of its AI development.[25]

Baidu Cloud, the company's cloud arm has received recognition from many industries due to its unique offerings, it adopts an integrated approach that combines capabilities and resources in AI, Big Data and Cloud Computing, providing customers with not only storage and computing but also complete solutions and services that are ready to deploy. Numerous companies and organisations have been using Baidu Cloud to increase the accuracy and efficiency of their products and services, as well as developing new technologies. The customer base of Baidu Cloud has increased 10 folds year-over-year, with traffic increasing eight folds and revenue increasing four folds. Recently, it has released the ABC – STACK, a hybrid cloud platform that provides enterprise customers with powerful and flexible solutions to effectively integrate and deploy AI into their businesses.[26]

Baidu Baike is similar to Wikipedia as an online encyclopedia; however, unlike Wikipedia, only registered users can edit the articles due to Chinese laws. While access to Wikipedia has been intermittently blocked or certain articles filtered in China since June 2004, there is some controversy about the degree to which Baidu cooperates with Chinese government censorship.[27]

The company also hosts a music service Baidu Music that has more than 200 million monthly active users, news service Baidu News Feed that has more than 100 million daily active users, and food delivery service Baidu Waimai that has more than 100 million monthly active users. On 4 December 2015, Baidu announced plans to merge with Taihe Entertainment Group to help the service compete with Apple Inc.'s Apple Music.[23][28]

In 2017, Baidu announced that its ambitious Apollo autonomous driving program (often called the ‘Android of the autonomous driving industry’, an open source platform for self-driving that includes hardware, software and cloud data services for autonomous vehicles) has over 50 partners (automakers, tier 1 suppliers, component producers, startups, academic institutions, government departments, artificial intelligence and technology companies), including FAW Group, one of the major Chinese carmakers that will work with Baidu on commercialization of the technology. Other partners include worldwide auto companies Chery, Volkswagen, General Motors, Hyundai, Daimler AG (Mercedes-Benz), BYD, Ford, Changan Automobile, ZF Friedrichshafen, BAIC, JAC and Great Wall Motors, as well as global organisations Tsinghua University, Intel, ZTE, Bosch, Continental AG, Nvidia, Microsoft, Velodyne, NXP Semiconductors, TomTom, UCAR, Grab, AutonomouStuff, Horizon Robotics and more.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]

By the end of 2020, Baidu hopes to offer a platform that can handle full autonomous driving on both urban roads and highways, and mass-producing its own self driving cars at a later period. It also plans to use its voice interaction and AI operating system DuerOS that already has more than 100 partners (such as Nvidia, Haier, Media, HTC, Vivo, and Harman International), together with the Apollo platform to create the world's largest autonomous driving system with high-precision maps, and setting up Apollo companies around the world. Baidu has recently begun a spree of acquisitions targeting AI and technology start-ups to further advance its AI ambitions, it aims to become the global leader of Artificial Intelligence just as China outlines its plans to achieve global AI leadership by 2030, and to "make DuerOS the most widely used conversational AI platform in the world". Project Apollo has also been praised as "an important milestone for the automotive industry and artificial intelligence".[37] According to a report, Baidu's self-driving AI technology may be valued at nearly US$650 billion and produce a US$120 billion annual revenue for the company by 2021, it will also boost its market cap to over US$1 trillion in the long term.[38][39][33][40][8][41][42][43]

Its first artificial intelligence (AI) developer conference Baidu Create was held at the China National Convention Center (CNCC) in Beijing on 5 July 2017, it convened Baidu executives and engineers as well as developers and experts across the AI industry.[44]

As of October 2017, Baidu's market cap rose to US$94.67 billion, with a recent surge in its stocks, net profit and revenue.[45][46][47] It has announced partnership with AMD and will leverage the two companies' world-class technology and software engineering capabilities to create a comprehensive and open ecosystem to address the growing demand for data center workloads and provide more intelligent human-computer interaction, as well as working with JD.com to offer AI-driven advertising and app integration. Baidu has created its own equity fund Baidu Fund Partnership to invest in internet and other technology endeavors, as well as Apollo Fund to invest in future autonomous driving projects. It has also announced plans to create a DuerOS Fund in the future.[48][49][50][51][52]

History

Early development

In 1994, Robin Li (Li Yanhong, 李彦宏) joined IDD Information Services, a New Jersey division of Dow Jones and Company, where he helped develop software for the online edition of the Wall Street Journal.[53] He also worked on developing better algorithms for search engines and remained at IDD Information Services from May 1994 to June 1997.

In 1996, while at IDD, Li developed the RankDex site-scoring algorithm for search engines results page ranking[54][55][56] and received a US patent for the technology.[57] He later used this technology for the Baidu search engine.

In 2000, the company Baidu launched in Beijing, China. The first office was located in a hotel room, which was near Peking University from where Robin graduated.

In 2003, Baidu launched a news search engine and picture search engine, adopting a special identification technology capable of identifying and grouping the articles.[58]

Domain name redirection

On January 12, 2010, Baidu.com's DNS records in the United States were altered such that browsers to baidu.com were redirected to a website purporting to be the Iranian Cyber Army, thought to be behind the attack on Twitter during the 2009 Iranian election protests, making the proper site unusable for four hours.[59] Internet users were met with a page saying "This site has been attacked by Iranian Cyber Army".[60] Chinese hackers later responded by attacking Iranian websites and leaving messages.[61] Baidu later launched legal action against Register.com for gross negligence after it was revealed that Register.com's technical support staff changed the email address for Baidu.com on the request of an unnamed individual, despite failing security verification procedures. Once the address had been changed, the individual was able to use the forgotten password feature to have Baidu's domain passwords sent directly to them, allowing them to accomplish the domain hijacking.[62][63]

Baidu workers arrested

On August 6, 2012, the BBC reported that three employees of Baidu were arrested on suspicion that they accepted bribes. The bribes were allegedly paid for deleting posts from the forum service. Four people were fired in connection with these arrests.[64]

91 Wireless acquisition

On July 16, 2013, Baidu announced its intention to purchase 91 Wireless from NetDragon. 91 Wireless is best known for its app store, but it has been reported that the app store faces piracy and other legal issues.[65] On August 14, 2013, Baidu announced that its wholly owned subsidiary Baidu (Hong Kong) Limited has signed a definitive merger agreement to acquire 91 Wireless Web-soft Limited from NetDragon Web-soft Inc.[66] for $1.85 billion in what was reported to be the biggest deal ever in China's IT sector.[67]

2010s announcements

On July 31, 2012, Baidu announced they would team up with Sina to provide mobile search results.[68]

On November 18, 2012, Baidu announced that they would be partnering with Qualcomm to offer free cloud storage to Android users with Snapdragon processors.[69]

On August 2, 2013, Baidu launched its Personal Assistant app, designed to help CEOs, managers and the white-collar workers manage their business relationships.[70]

On May 16, 2014, Baidu appointed Dr. Andrew Ng as chief scientist. Dr. Ng will lead Baidu Research in Silicon Valley and Beijing.[71]

On July 18, 2014, the company launched a Brazilian version of the search engine, Baidu Busca.[72]

On October 9, 2014, Baidu announced acquisition of Brazilian local e-commerce site Peixe Urbano.[73]

In April 2017, Baidu announced to launch Apollo project, its self-driving vehicle platform in a bid to help drive the development of autonomous cars including vehicle platform, hardware platform, software platform and cloud data services.[74] Baidu plans to launch this project in July this year, before gradually introducing fully autonomous driving capabilities on highways and open city roads by 2020.[75]

In June 2017, Baidu partnered with Continental and Bosch, auto industry suppliers, on automated driving and connected cars.[76]

In September 2017, Baidu has rolled out a new portable talking translator that can listen and speak in several different languages. Smaller than a typical smartphone, the 140-gram translation device can also be used as a portable Wi-Fi router and is able to operate on networks in 80 countries, it is still under development currently. Baidu will also be inserting artificial intelligence (AI) technology into smartphones, through its deep learning platform.[77][78] At the same period, it has also led a joint investment of US$12 billion with Alibaba Group, Tencent, JD.com and Didi Chuxing, acquiring 35% of China Unicom's stakes.[79][80]

Name

The name Baidu (百度) literally means "a hundred times", or alternatively, "countless times". It is a quote from the last line of Xin Qiji (辛弃疾)'s classical poem "Green Jade Table in The Lantern Festival" (青玉案·元夕) saying: "Having searched thousands of times in the crowd, suddenly turning back, She is there in the dimmest candlelight." (众里寻他千百度 ,蓦然回首,那人却在灯火阑珊处。)[81]

Services

Baidu offers several services[82] to locate information, products and services using Chinese-language search terms, such as, search by Chinese phonetics, advanced search, snapshots, spell checker, stock quotes, news, knows, postbar, images, video and space information, and weather, train and flight schedules and other local information. The user-agent string of Baidu search engine is Baiduspider.[83][84] Also, a Baidu application for Apple's iOS is available.[85]

  • Baidu Map (百度地图) is a desktop and mobile mapping solution similar to Google Maps, but covering only the Greater China region
  • Baidu Netdisk (百度网盘), formerly Baidu Cloud (百度云) is a cloud storage service that offers 2 TB of free data storage.[86]
  • Baidu started its Japanese language search service, run by Baidu Japan, the company's first regular service outside of China.[87] It includes a search bar for web pages and image searches, user help and advanced services.[88] The Japanese search engine closed on March 16, 2015.[89]
  • Baidu Post Bar (百度贴吧)provides users with a query-based searchable community to exchange views and share knowledge and experiences. It is an online community bound tightly with Baidu's search service.
  • Baidu News provides links to a selection of local, national and international news, and presents news stories in a searchable format, within minutes of their publication on the Web. Baidu News uses an automated process to display links to related headlines, which enables people to see many different viewpoints on the same story. Chinese government and Chinese industry sources stated that Baidu received a license from Beijing, which allows the search engine to become a full-fledged news website. Thus Baidu is able to provide its own reports, besides showing certain results as a search engine. Baidu is the first Chinese search engine to receive such a license.[90]
  • Baidu Knows (百度知道) provides users with a query-based searchable community to share knowledge and experience. Through Baidu Knows, registered members of Baidu Knows can post specific questions for other members to respond and also answer questions of other members.
  • Baidu MP3 Search provides algorithm-generated links to songs and other multimedia files provided by Internet content providers. Baidu started with a popular music search feature called "MP3 Search" and its comprehensive lists of popular Chinese music, Baidu 500, based on download numbers. Baidu locates file formats such as MP3, WMA and SWF. The multimedia search feature is mainly used in searches for Chinese pop music. While such works are copyrighted under Chinese law, Baidu claims on its legal disclaimer that linking to these files does not break Chinese law. This has led other local search engines to follow the practice, including Google China(Hong Kong), which uses an intermediate company called Top100 to offer a similar MP3 Search service.
  • Baidu Image Search enables users to search millions of images on the Internet. Baidu Image Search offers features such as search by image size and by image file type. Image listings are organized by various categories, which are updated automatically through algorithms.
  • Baidu Video Search enables users to search for and access through hyperlinks of online video clips that are hosted on third parties’ Websites.
  • Baidu Space the social networking service of Baidu, allows registered users to create personalized homepages in a query-based searchable community.[91] Registered users can post their Web logs, or blogs, photo album and certain personal information on their homepages and establish their own communities of friends who are also registered users. By July 2009, it had reached 100 million registered users
  • Baidu Baike, is China's largest online encyclopedia by users and page views/web traffic; second largest encyclopedia by article count (after Hudong).
    • China Digital Village Encyclopedia (中国数字乡村大百科全书), in June 2009, Baidu announced it would compile the largest digital rural encyclopedia in China, according to China Securities Journal. It is expected to include 500,000 administrative villages in China, covering 80% of the total 600,000 villages in China. Baidu is creating the content of this encyclopedia largely from participants of its "rural information competition" (乡村信息化大赛),[92] on which it has spent roughly five million yuan on incentives. Baidu sees China's rural areas as great potential for electronic business (e-business), evidenced by the fact that revenue grew the fastest from agriculture, forestry, animals, and fishery in the company's keyword promotion project, a crucial source of Baidu's total revenue. In addition to Baidu Encyclopedia, the company scales up keyword promotion and takes advantage of other products, such as Baidu Zhidao and Baidu Youa, to provide consultation, brand ad exhibitions and online network marketing/sales platform support, marketing information for rural tourism and promoting local products.[93]
  • Baidu Search Ranking provides listings of search terms based on daily search queries entered on Baidu.com. The listings are organized by categories and allow users to locate search terms on topics of interest.
  • Baidu Web Directory enables users to browse and search through websites that have been organized into categories.
  • Baidu Government Information Search allows users to search various regulations, rules, notices, and other information announced by People's Republic of China government entities.
  • Baidu Postal Code Search enables users to search postal codes in hundreds of cities in China.
  • Educational Website Search allows users to search the Websites of educational institutions. Baidu University Search allows users to search information on or browse through the Websites of specific universities in China
  • Baidu Legal Search enables users to search a database that contains national and local laws and regulations, cases, legal decisions, and law dictionaries.
  • Baidu Love is a query-based searchable community where registered users can write and post messages to loved ones.
  • Baidu Patent Search enables users to search for specific Chinese patents and provides basic patent information in the search results, including the patent's name, application number, filing date, issue date, inventor information and brief description of the patent.
  • Baidu Games is an online channel that allows users to search or browse through game-related news and content.
  • Baidu-Hexun Finance, a financial information Website,[94] with partner Hexun.com, a financial information service provider in China with news reporting and securities consulting licenses. Users can search or browse through economic and financial news, information relating to personal wealth management and related market statistics.
  • Baidu Statistics Search enables users to search statistics that have been published by the Government of the People's Republic of China
  • Baidu Entertainment is an online channel for entertainment-related news and content. Users can search or browse through news and other information relating to specific stars, movies, television series and music.
  • Baidu Tongji is Baidu's web analytics platform. It provides users with many reports about visitors to their website, such as a report on the source of visitors to their website, a user demographics report, reports on content viewed on site, and a heat map report.[95]
  • Baidu Dictionary provides users with lookup and text translation services between Chinese and English.
  • Baidu Youa, an online shopping/e-commerce platform through which businesses can sell their products and services at Baidu-registered stores.[96]
  • Baidu Desktop Search, a free, downloadable software, which enables users to search all files saved on their computer without launching a Web browser.
  • Baidu Sobar, a free, downloadable software, displayed on a browser's tool bar and makes the search function available on every Web page that a user browses.
  • Baidu Wireless provides various services for mobile phones, including a Chinese-input front end processor (FEP) for various popular operating systems including Android, Symbian S60v5, and Windows Mobile.
  • Baidu Anti-Virus offers anti-virus software products and computer virus-related news.
  • Baidu Safety Center, launched in 2008, provides users with free virus scanning, system repair and online security evaluations
  • Baidu Internet TV (known as Baidu Movies) allows users to search, watch and download free movies, television series, cartoons, and other programs hosted on its servers
  • Chinese-language voice assistant search services for Chinese speakers visiting Japan was launched in 2008, with partner Japanese personal handy-phone system operator Willcom Inc.
  • Discovery Networks Asia-Pacific,[97] joint venture with Discovery Communications, focusing on science, technology, space, natural history, engineering, paleontology, archaeology, history, and culture.
  • Baidu Index (known as Baidu Zhishu) allows users to look up the search volume and trend for certain hot keywords and phrases. It can serve as a Baidu keyword research tool.[98]
  • Baidu Bookmarks (known as Baidu Soucang) is a social bookmarking service supported by Baidu.com
  • Baidu Browser is a web browser first released[99] as a beta in July 2011.[100] It has been noted that the user interface looks very similar to Google Chrome/Chromium.[101]
  • Baidu Yi is a smartphone operating system based on Android OS, announced in September 2011.[102]
  • Baidu Library is an open online platform for users to share documents. All the documents in Baidu Library are uploaded by the users and Baidu does not edit or change the documents. Users can read and download lecture notes, exercises, sample exams, presentation slides, materials of various subjects, variety of documents templates, etc. However, it is not completely free. In order to download some documents, users should have enough Baidu points to cover the points asked by the uploaders. Users could gain Baidu points by making contribution to Baidu Library and other users, such as uploading documents, categorizing documents, evaluating documents, etc.[103]
  • Baidu Experience is a product of Baidu primarily focusing on supporting the users with practical problems. In other words, it helps the users to solve the "how to do" problem. It was launched in October 2010. In architecture, Baidu Experience has integrated and reformatted Baidu Encyclopedia and Baike Knows. The first difference between Baidu Experience and Baidu Knows is that the former concentrates on specific "how to do" problems while the later contains a wider range of problems. The second difference is that users could share their experience without being asked on Baidu Experience.[104]
  • Baidu around You is a searching and sharing platform aiming at supporting the users with making their consumption decisions. There are currently 7 main categories of information on Baidu around You, including food, shopping, recreation, hotels, fitness, beauty and traveling. In addition, Baidu around You provides the users with convenient services and local information, partially coming from the users and searchable by cities.[105]
  • Qunar (Qunar Cayman Islands Limited), travel-booking service controlled by Baidu. As of 2013, Qunar had 31.4 million active users and raised $167 Million at its initial public offering that year.[106] It is listed at NASDAQQUNR[107]
  • Baidu Duer: Another addition to the family of virtual assistants.[108]
  • Baidu Zhanzhang: The free suite of webmaster tools offered by Baidu.[109][110]

Advertisements

Baidu's primary advertising product is called Baidu Tuiguang and is similar to Google Adwords and Adsense. It is a pay per click advertising platform that allows advertisers to have their ads shown in Baidu search results pages and on other websites that are part of Baidu Union.

Baidu sells its advertising products via a network of resellers.[111]

Baidu's web administrative tools are all in Chinese, which makes it tough for non-Chinese speakers to use. Recently, a third-party company began to develop a tool with an English-language interface for Baidu advertising programs.[112][113]

Moreover, the service may only be used by advertisers with a registered business address in China or in several other East Asian countries.[114]

Pay for placement (P4P)

Baidu focuses on generating revenues primarily from online marketing services. Baidu's pay for placement (P4P) platform enables its customers to reach users who search for information related to their products or services. Customers use automated online tools to create text-based descriptions of their web pages and bid on keywords that trigger the display of their webpage information and link. Baidu's P4P platform features an automated online sign-up process that customers use to activate their accounts at any time. The P4P platform is an online marketplace that introduces Internet search users to customers who bid for priority placement in the search results. Baidu also uses third-party distributors to sell some of its online marketing services to end customers and offers discounts to these distributors in consideration of their services.

Baidu offers certain consultative services, such as keyword suggestions, account management and performance reporting. Baidu suggests synonyms and associated phrases to use as keywords or text in search listings. These suggestions can improve clickthrough rates of the customer's listing and increase the likelihood that a user will enter into a transaction with the customer. Baidu also provides online daily reports of the number of clickthroughs, clicked keywords and the total costs incurred, as well as statistical reports organized by geographic region.citation needed

ProTheme

Baidu offers ProTheme services to some of its Baidu Union members, which enable these members to display on their properties its customers' promotional links that are relevant to the subject and content of such members' properties. Baidu generates revenues from ProTheme services based on the number of clicks on its customers' links and share the revenues with its Baidu Union members in accordance with pre-agreed terms. Baidu's fixed-ranking services allow customers to display query-sensitive text links at a designated location on its search results pages. Its Targetizement services enable customers to reach their targeted Internet users by displaying their advertisements only when their targeted Internet users browse Baidu's certain Web pages.

Baidu TV

Baidu operates its advertising service, Baidu TV, in partnership with Ads it! Media Corporation, an online advertising agency and technology company. Baidu TV provides advertisers access to the websites of its Baidu Union members, allowing advertisers to choose Websites on which they post their video advertisements with the aid of its advertisement targeting and matching system. It also offers a brand advertising service, Brand-Link. In June 2008, Baidu launched My Marketing Center, a customized platform integrating industry information, market trends and business, and industry news and reports to assist existing customers in their sales and marketing efforts. Other forms of its online advertising services allow customers to display query sensitive and non-query sensitive advertisements on its websites, including graphical advertisements.

Baidu Union

Baidu Union consists of several third-party websites and software applications.[115] Union members incorporate a Baidu search box or toolbar and match its sponsored links with the content on their properties. Their users can conduct search via the Baidu search box or toolbar and can click the sponsored links located on their properties. Baidu has also launched programs through which it displays the online advertising of its customers on Baidu Union websites, and share the fees generated by these advertisements with the owners of these Baidu Union websites. As of May 2011, there were 230 thousand partner websites that displayed Baidu Union ads on their websites.[116]

Competition

Baidu[117] competes with 360 Search (www.so.com), Sogou Search (www.sogou.com), Yahoo! China, Microsoft's Bing and MSN Messenger, Sina, Wikipedia, NetEase's Youdao, Tencent's Soso.com and PaiPai, Alibaba's Taobao, TOM Online, and EachNet.

Baidu is the No. 1 search engine in China, controlling 63 percent of China's market share as of January 2010, according to iResearch.[118] The number of Internet users in China had reached 705 million by the end of 2015, according to a report by the internetlivestats.com.[119]

In an August 2010 Wall Street Journal article,[120] Baidu played down its benefit from Google's having moved its China search service to Hong Kong, but Baidu's share of revenue in China's search-advertising market grew six percentage points in the second quarter to 70%, according to Beijing-based research firm Analysys International.

It is also evident that Baidu is attempting to enter the Internet social network market. As of 2011, it is discussing the possibility of working with Facebook, which would lead to a Chinese version of the international social network, managed by Baidu.[121] This plan, if executed, would face off Baidu with competition from the three popular Chinese social networks Qzone, Renren[122] and Kaixin001[123] as well as induce rivalry with instant-messaging giant, Tencent QQ.[124]

On February 22, 2012, Hudong submitted a complaint to the State Administration for Industry and Commerce asking for a review of the behavior of Baidu, accusing it of being monopolistic.[125]

On January 9, 2013, Baidu was still number one in the market, with 64.5% of the users, the closest competitor, Qihoo 360, who launched its own search engine in August, has already taken hold of 10.2% users. Following are Google and Sogou.[126]

By August 2014, Baidu's search market share in China has dropped to 56.3%, where Qihoo 360, its closest competitor who has rebranded its search engine as so.com, has increased its market share to 29.0%, according to report from CNZZ.com.[127]

In February 2015, Baidu was alleged to use anticompetitive tactics in Brazil against the Brazilian online security firm PSafe and Qihoo 360 (the largest investor of PSafe).[128][129]

Research and patents

Baidu has started to invest in deep learning research and is integrating new deep learning technology into some of its apps and products, including Phoenix Nest. Phoenix Nest is Baidu's ad-bidding platform.[130]

In April 2012 Baidu applied for a patent for its "DNA copyright recognition" technology. This technology automatically scans files that are uploaded by Internet users, and recognizes and filters out content that may violate copyright law. This allows Baidu to offer an infringement-free platform.[131][132]

Baidu has applied for a utility patent in the UK, for its proprietary site-wise search technology which is currently available in China.citation needed

Censorship

According to the China Digital Times, Baidu has a long history of being the most proactive and restrictive online censor in the search arena. Documents leaked in April 2009 from an employee in Baidu's internal monitoring and censorship department show a long list of blocked websites and censored topics on Baidu search.[133]

In May 2011, activists sued Baidu in the United States for violating the U.S. constitution by the censorship it conducts in accord with the demand of the Chinese government.[134] A U.S. judge has ruled[135] that the Chinese search engine Baidu has the right to block pro-democracy works from its query results, dismissing a lawsuit that sought to punish the company for Internet censorship.citation needed

Controversies

Baidu's reviews are mixed for in many fields and it is controversial. The examples are promoting and commercialization of Baidu Tieba.

Death of Wei Zexi

In May 2016, Baidu's P4P search results reportedly caused the death of a student who tried an experimental cancer therapy he found online. The 21-year-old college student was named Wèi Zéxī (魏则西), who studied in Xidian University. Wei was diagnosed with synovial sarcoma, a rare form of cancer. He found the Second Hospital of the Beijing Armed Police Corps (武警北京市总队第二医院) through the search engine Baidu, on which the hospital had been promoting itself. The treatment proved to be unsuccessful.citation needed

After Wei's family spent around 200,000 yuan (around 31,150 USD) for treatment in the hospital, Wei Zexi died on April 12, 2016. The incident triggered massive online discussions after Wei's death. The fact that Baidu valued money way more than life kindled nationwide rage.[136] On May 2, 2016, Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC), the top watchdog for China's Internet space, dispatched a team of investigators to Baidu.[137] The case is still ongoing. One report claimed medical advertising makes up for 30% of Baidu's ad revenue, much of which comes from for-profit hospitals that belong to the "Putian Network", a collection of hospitals across the country founded by medical entrepreneurs associated with the Putian region of Fujian province.[138] The investigation led Chinese regulators to impose several restrictions on Baidu, including adding disclaimers to promotional content and establishing channels for complaints about Baidu services.[139]

Commercialization of Tieba

Baidu sold the hemophilia online community, one of the communities of Tieba, to unqualified hospitals. In January 2016, Baidu announced that it will stop selling all of its illness-related Tieba.[140]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Baidu - Investors - Management". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Baidu - Investors - Press Releases". Retrieved April 4, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b http://ir.baidu.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=188488&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2248999
  4. ^ "Baidu - Investors - Investor FAQs". Retrieved Feb 14, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Baidu.com Site Overview". Alexa Internet. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  6. ^ "IR Contacts." Baidu. Retrieved on December 27, 2010. "Address: Baidu Campus, No. 10, Shangdi 10th Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 People's Republic of China."
  7. ^ "Beijing airport tests Baidu’s ‘face as boarding pass’ technology". South China Morning Post. 
  8. ^ a b Yan, Sophia (5 July 2017). "Baidu: China has an opportunity to lead global A.I. development". 
  9. ^ "Baidu's 57 Products/Services: Introduction and History". China Analyst (CNAnalyst.com). 
  10. ^ "Alexa Top 500 Global Sites". Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  11. ^ "The Fathers of Baidu. The Story Behind the Curtains • Sekkei Studio Blog". www.sekkeistudio.com. 
  12. ^ "Global App Power Consumption Report - DU Apps Studio". www.duapps.com. 
  13. ^ "ABOUT US - DU Group". www.duapps.com. 
  14. ^ "About – Baidu". global.baidu.com. 
  15. ^ "Tech in Asia - Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". www.techinasia.com. 
  16. ^ "Baidu Shoots Up Google Play Download Rankings With Apps That Boost Android Performance". www.duapps.com. 
  17. ^ "Baidu App Store". pcappstore.baidu.com. 
  18. ^ "手机助手_百度手机助手电脑安卓版下载_百度手机助手". shouji.baidu.com (in Chinese). 
  19. ^ "How To Get Into Baidu, The World's 2nd Largest Search Engine". Search Engine Land. 29 September 2009. 
  20. ^ "The China Perspective, "China Economic Watch"". 
  21. ^ "Baidu Market share". 
  22. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (December 10, 2007). "Search site moves at the speed of China". Los Angeles Times. 
  23. ^ a b "25 Facts - What is Baidu Search Engine - Guttulus Digital Marketing Agency". Guttulus Digital Marketing Agency. 7 February 2017. 
  24. ^ "MSN Money – BIDU". MSN Money. Archived from the original on May 1, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-11. 
  25. ^ Beith, Tobias (21 July 2017). "A Thoughtful Investment With Help From Baidu Brain". Seeking Alpha. 
  26. ^ Ltd, Baidu Online Network Technology (Beijing) Co.,. "Baidu Cloud Announces Hybrid Cloud Platform To Accelerate Enterprise Deployment of AI". GlobeNewswire News Room. 
  27. ^ Branigan, Tania. "Google to end censorship in China over cyber-attacks". Guardian. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  28. ^ "Baidu Music to merge with Taihe to take on Apple Music in China". Digital Market Asia. DMA News Desk. December 4, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Tech in Asia - Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". www.techinasia.com. 
  30. ^ "Apollo". apollo.auto. 
  31. ^ "Baidu’s Project Apollo Takes Flight, Bringing Autonomous Cars Closer to Reality | The Official NVIDIA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. 5 July 2017. 
  32. ^ Etherington, Darrell. "Baidu’s Apollo platform becomes the ‘Android of the autonomous driving industry’ | TechCrunch". 
  33. ^ a b Asia, All Tech (5 July 2017). "Baidu introduces DuerOS and driverless car platform Apollo". Medium. 
  34. ^ "JAC teams up with Baidu on autonomous cars - Business - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. 
  35. ^ "FRANKFURT - ZF and Baidu agree strategic cooperation". 12 September 2017. 
  36. ^ "NXP, Baidu to join hands on self-driving - Business - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. 
  37. ^ "Apollo". apollo.auto. 
  38. ^ "Driverless Technology May Give Baidu $120 Billion Annual Revenue By 2021". Seeking Alpha. 1 September 2017. 
  39. ^ "Baidu’s ambitious plan for ‘everyone on this planet’ to use its conversational AI DuerOS". VentureBeat. 19 August 2017. 
  40. ^ "An In-Depth Look At Baidu's (BIDU) Artificial Intelligence Aspirations". NASDAQ.com. 25 July 2017. 
  41. ^ Wang, Yue. "The Chinese Tech Firms Pushing Boundaries Of Artificial Intelligence". Forbes. 
  42. ^ Wang, Yue. "Inside Baidu's Billion Dollar Push To Become An AI Global Leader". Forbes. 
  43. ^ Lee, Cyrus. "China aims to become global AI leader by 2030 | ZDNet". ZDNet. 
  44. ^ Inc., Baidu,. "Baidu Announces Inaugural AI Developer Conference "Baidu Create"". GlobeNewswire News Room. 
  45. ^ "Baidu offers rosy outlook after Google threat | IOL Business Report". 
  46. ^ "Baidu Market Cap (BIDU)". ycharts.com. 
  47. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (7 August 2017). "These Chinese tech stocks are even hotter than FANG". 
  48. ^ Bruno, Giovanni (28 August 2017). "AMD, Baidu Announce Data Center Collaborative Agreement". TheStreet. 
  49. ^ "JD and Baidu partner to offer AI-driven advertising and app integration". TechNode. 11 August 2017. 
  50. ^ Betz, SA Editor Brandy (24 August 2017). "Baidu, China Life forming $1B tech equity fund". Seeking Alpha. 
  51. ^ "Baidu's ambitious plan for 'everyone on this planet' to use its conversational AI DuerOS | VentureBeat | AI | by Khari Johnson". venturebeat.com. 
  52. ^ "China's Baidu launches US$1.5 billion autonomous driving fund". Channel NewsAsia. 
  53. ^ "Robin Li's vision powers Baidu's Internet search dominance", Taipei Times, September 17i, 2006.
  54. ^ Greenberg, Andy, "The Man Who's Beating Google", Forbes magazine, October 5, 2009
  55. ^ Yanhong Li, "Toward a Qualitative Search Engine," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 24–29, July/Aug. 1998, doi:10.1109/4236.707687
  56. ^ "About: RankDex", rankdex.com
  57. ^ USPTO, "Hypertext Document Retrieval System and Method", US Patent number: 5920859, Inventor: Yanhong Li, Filing date: Feb 5, 1997, Issue date: Jul 6, 1999
  58. ^ "Baidu Launched News Search Engine and Pictures Search Engine". 
  59. ^ "Baidu hacked by 'Iranian cyber army'". BBC News. 2010-01-12. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  60. ^ "China's top search engine Baidu hacked". People's Daily. January 12, 2010. 
  61. ^ Branigan, Tania (January 12, 2010). "'Iranian' hackers paralyse Chinese search engine Baidu". The Guardian. London. 
  62. ^ Back, Aaron. "Baidu Sues Register.com, Alleges Negligence in Hacking Attack". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  63. ^ "Baidu: Registrar 'incredibly' changed our e-mail for hacker," Computer World, February 24, 2010. Accessed December 13, 2010.
  64. ^ "BBC News - Baidu workers arrested for 'deleting posts for money'". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  65. ^ Hsu, Alex (16 Jul 2013). "91 Wireless’ App Store Has Piracy and Other Legal Issues". BrightWire News. 
  66. ^ Baidu Signs Definitive Agreement to Acquire NetDragon's Subsidiary 91 Wireless,Baidu Press Releases, August 14, 2013
  67. ^ Paul Carsten (14 August 2013). "Baidu says agrees to buy Netdragon's 91 Wireless for $1.85 billion". Reuters. 
  68. ^ "Sina and Baidu team up in China to focus on mobile". bbc.co.uk. July 31, 2012. 
  69. ^ "Baidu and Qualcomm partner to offer free cloud storage". Geeks Hut. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  70. ^ Baidu Launch Personal Assistant App for Android Phones,CHINA INTERNET WATCH, August 6, 2013
  71. ^ "Baidu Opens Silicon Valley Lab, Appoints Andrew Ng as Head of Baidu Research". PRNewswire.com. Retrieved 2017-06-03. 
  72. ^ Paul Bischoff (2014-07-18). "China web giant Baidu launches search engine in Brazil". Tech In Asia. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 
  73. ^ "China's Baidu buys control of Brazil's Peixe Urbano in expansion push". Reuters. 2014-12-04. 
  74. ^ Jon Russell (18 April 2017). "Baidu is making its self-driving car platform freely available to the automotive industry". TechCrunch. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  75. ^ Sangameswaran S (19 April 2017). "Baidu to launch self-driving car technology in July". REUTERS. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  76. ^ Darrell Etherington (1 June 2017). "Baidu teams up with Bosch and Continental on self-driving tech". TechCrunch. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  77. ^ "Baidu's talking translator gives tourists a hand- Nikkei Asian Review". Nikkei Asian Review. 
  78. ^ "Baidu puts open source deep learning into smartphones". 
  79. ^ Russell, Jon. "Alibaba, Tencent, Didi and other tech firms pour $12B into mobile operator China Unicom | TechCrunch". 
  80. ^ "Exclusive: Baidu, JD.com to join others investing $12 billion in state-owned China Unicom - sources". Reuters. 2017. 
  81. ^ "The Baidu Story". Baidu. 
  82. ^ "Baidu - Investors - Products". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  83. ^ "关于baiduspider". baidu.com. March 18, 2009. 
  84. ^ "Baiduspider User-Agent String". httpuseragent.org. March 17, 2009. 
  85. ^ "手机百度-海量新闻、上网最快、团购电影票最优惠的搜索 on the App Store". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  86. ^ Baidu Yun official website. Retrieved 2014-04-23.(in Chinese)
  87. ^ "Baidu Japan". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  88. ^ "China's Google in Japan". Infoniac.com. March 23, 2007. 
  89. ^ "After 8 years of failing, Baidu shuts Japan search engine". Tech IN Asia. April 17, 2015. 
  90. ^ "Google's Lookalike is Expanding in China". Gadget4boys.com. January 23, 2007. 
  91. ^ "百度Hi官网". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  92. ^ "xiangcun.baidu.com". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  93. ^ "Baidu will compile the rural digital Encyclopedia - BIC". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  94. ^ "百度新闻搜索——全球最大的中文新闻平台". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  95. ^ Lawton, Tait. "A Thorough Guide to Baidu Analytics (Baidu Tongji)". 
  96. ^ "Youa.com". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  97. ^ "Discovery探索频道中文网". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  98. ^ Baidu keyword research tool.
  99. ^ "百度浏览器". Liulanqi.baidu.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  100. ^ China's Baidu Joins Browser Battle, Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2011
  101. ^ Baidu's New Browser Looks Strikingly Familiar, China Real Time Report – WSJ, July 19, 2011
  102. ^ "Baidu Looks To Leapfrog Google With Cloud-Based Mobile OS (Update)". TechCrunch. September 2, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  103. ^ "百度文库_百度百科". Baike.baidu.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  104. ^ "百度经验_百度百科". Baike.baidu.com. 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  105. ^ "百度身边_百度百科". Baike.baidu.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  106. ^ Fox Hu and Belinda Cao. Published Nov 2, 2013. Baidu's Qunar Rises After $167 Million IPO Exceeds Target. Bloomberg L.P.. Retrieved September 25, 2014
  107. ^ Qunar Cayman Islands Ltd Bloomberg L.P.. Retrieved September 25, 2014
  108. ^ http://blog.codexify.com/2015/09/bynow-you-all-must-be-familiar-with.html
  109. ^ "百度站长平台_让网站更具价值". zhanzhang.baidu.com. Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  110. ^ "Baidu 101: An Overview of Baidu Webmaster Tools". Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  111. ^ Lawton, Tait. "Baidu Pay Per Click: 7 Tips for a Successful Campaign". SearchEngineJournal.com. 
  112. ^ "Glogou Launches New Tools To Help Businesses Build Their Online Presence (And Ad Campaigns) In China". TechCrunch. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  113. ^ 作者:清辰 (2012-11-07). "不懂中文没关系 Glogou帮助外企进军中国_互联网_科技时代_新浪网". Tech.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  114. ^ "Manage Baidu Ppc Registration". April 27, 2012. 
  115. ^ "百度联盟-让合作伙伴更强". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  116. ^ Lin, Susan. "Baidu's Content Network - Baidu Union". NanjingMarketingGroup.com. NanjingMarketingGroup.com. 
  117. ^ Statistics on Baidu's Annual Revenue, Baidu. March 2013.
  118. ^ Barboza, David (January 13, 2010). "Baidu's Gain from Departure Could Be China's Loss". The New York Times. 
  119. ^ "China Internet Users". 
  120. ^ Fletcher, Owen (August 3, 2010). "Baidu's CEO Pursues Long-Term Growth". Wall Street Journal. 
  121. ^ 传百度与Facebook签合作协议 – Baidu signed a cooperation agreement with Facebook, ThinkingChinese, April 14, 2011
  122. ^ "人人网,中国领先的实名制SNS社交网络。加入人人网,找到老同学,结识新朋友。". 
  123. ^ "开心网". 
  124. ^ Baidu and QQ aren't willing to remain outside the Chinese Social Network market, ThinkingChinese, April 2011
  125. ^ Yang, Yang (杨阳 Yáng Yáng). Translated by Guo Wei. "China's "Wikipedia" Submits Complaint about Baidu ." (Archive) The Economic Observer. March 4, 2011. Issue 508, Corporation, Page 28. Retrieved on October 26, 2012. Original article: "百度:我是大哥 我不叫度娘." Febinframe.php Archive])
  126. ^ "SEO in China - Top Innovative Agency". January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  127. ^ Research, China Stock (September 1, 2014). "China Search Engine Market Share - August 2014". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  128. ^ Ruvolo, Julie. "Brazil Becomes A New Front In The Battle Between Baidu And Qihoo". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  129. ^ "Baidu's Alleged Anticompetitive Tactics in Brazil". April 14, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  130. ^ Hsu, Alex (15 July 2013). "Baidu Using Deep-Learning Technology to Boost Phoenix Nest Revenue". BrightWire News. 
  131. ^ [1] Archived February 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  132. ^ "Baidu Applies for DNA Copyright Recognition Technology Patent". BrightWire. 
  133. ^ Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (1), Xiao Qiang, China Digital Times, April 30, 2009
    Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (2)
    Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (3)
  134. ^ Jonathan Stempel, "China, Baidu Sued In U.S. For Internet Censorship", Reuters, May 19, 2011.
  135. ^ "Zhang et al v. Baidu.Com Inc. et al". Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  136. ^ "Commentary: Death of college student raises questions on Baidu's ethics". People's Daily. 2016. 
  137. ^ "China Focus: Investigation into Baidu after student death". Xinhua News Agency. 2016. 
  138. ^ "Baidu, China's version of Google, is 'evil,' a growing number of users say". Quartz. 2016. 
  139. ^ "China Orders Baidu to Revamp Advertising Results in Online Searches". The Wall Street Journal. 
  140. ^ Baidu to halt commercialization of Tieba health forums, China Daily, 2016

Further reading

External links

Media related to Baidu at Wikimedia Commons

Mylinks join mailing list Mylinks profile page Mylinks facebook Mylinks tunepak Mylinks shows Mylinks tunepak Mylinks showsMylinks join mailing list Mylinks profile page Mylinks facebook